Coastal Sage, Chaparral and Nearby Mountains, Part 2

Oak woodlands where condors soar, the nation’s rarest pine tree, and the Mountains to Sea Trail

This section describes the national systems of public lands and notable private lands which protect natural landscapes in the Mediterranean climate ecoregions of western North America. The areas listed are between 115 and 120 degrees West and 31 and 40 degrees north. Other Mediterranean climate areas exist to the west. The categories listed are National Forest System, National Landscape Conservation System, National Marine Sanctuaries, National Natural Landmarks, National Park System, Federal Recreation Lakes, National Scenic Trails, National Wild and Scenic River System, Federal Wilderness Areas, and National Wildlife Refuge System. Some of these categories overlap. For example, wilderness areas exist on national forests, national parks, national wildlife refuges, and elsewhere in the national system of public lands. National wild and scenic rivers also exist in forests, parks, and other public lands. These lands differ in the amount of public access allowed, from none to extensive, the types and amount of outdoor recreation activities allowed, and in water and vegetation management. Over time, the management philosophies of these different categories of lands have come closer together as the recognition of the need to manage lands in a coordinated manner increases. The section concludes with information on state and local sites and private land conservation efforts. The list of federal, state, local, and private sites is selective and no effort is made to identify all such sites. Designation of Important Bird Areas (IBAs) is a private effort coordinated by BirdLife International internationally and the National Audubon Society and American Bird Conservancy in the U.S. Where an area is listed as an IBA, that is noted in the description.

I. National Forest (NF) System

The National Forest System includes areas that would be considered managed forests, as well as numerous special areas that have been designated by Congressional or administrative action.

Angeles NF, California (site 6). This 700,000-acre area adjacent to Los Angeles is in two units and includes the San Gabriel Mountains. Vegetation ranges from chaparral to pines and fir. The Palomar, Volcan, Hot Springs, Cuyamaca, and Laguna Mountains comprise the San Diego Montane Forests IBA of Audubon. Major recreation areas include 10,000-foot Mount Baldy, Big Pines, Bouquet Canyon, Chilao (along the Angeles Crest Highway), Grassy Hollow, Crystal Lake, Mount Baden-Powell, Mount Wilson, Pyramid Lake, and Gabrielino National Recreation Trail, and High Desert NRT. Wilderness areas include Cucamonga, Magic Mountain, Pleasant View Ridge, San Gabriel, and Sheep Mountain. The San Dimas Experimental Forest and Biosphere Reserve is to the south of Sheep Mountain Wilderness. Ecoregion NA1203.

Cleveland NF, California (site 7). This NF is in four units east of San Diego and southeast of Los Angeles. Major recreation areas and points of interest include Laguna Mountain along the Sunrise Scenic Byway north of I-8, Ortega Highway between Lake Elsinore and San Juan Capistrano, Palomar Observatory, and San Diego River Canyon. The northern unit is part of the southern Orange County IBA for San Diego cactus wren and California gnatcatcher. Laguna Mountain is a high plateau with meadows and unusual trees, including Jeffrey pine, California black oak, Coulter pine, and Palmer’s ceanothus. The San Luis Rey River below Lake Henshaw is an IBA for nesting southwestern willow flycatcher. Includes Agua Tibia, Hauser, Pine Creek, and San Mateo Canyon Wilderness areas. Ecoregion NA1201.

Los Padres NF, California (site 8). The mountains overlooking the Pacific Ocean are comprised of wilderness areas, including Chumash, Matilija, San Rafael, Sespe, and Dick Smith Wilderness areas in the map area. The forest also supports condor sanctuaries at Sisquoc in the San Rafael and Sespe Wilderness. The Jacinto Reyes scenic byway bisects the forest. The Upper Santa Ynez River is an IBA for Bell’s vireo, willow flycatcher, and spotted owl. Ecoregion NA1203.

North Mountain Experimental Area, California (site 9). A chaparral area south of Banning used for research on fire ecology. Ecoregion NA1203.

San Bernardino NF, California (site 10). The Rim of the World and Palms to Pines scenic byways provide access to the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountain ranges. Ecoregions NA1201, 1203, and 1310. The San Jacinto wilderness (NA 1203) is shared with the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto National Monument. The upper Santa Ana River is an IBA for the black swift. Bautista Creek Wild and Scenic River (1203) is an IBA and important migratory bird corridor. Baldwin Lake (1203) is a large ephemeral lake surrounded by Great Basin sage scrub and yellow pine woodland and is an IBA for eared grebe, shorebirds, and raptors. The James San Jacinto Mountains Reserve (1203) on route 243 is operated by the University of California as part of its Natural Reserve System.

San Joaquin Experimental Range, California. See description under Biosphere Reserves.

Sequoia NF, California (site 11). Includes the southernmost Sierra Nevada mountains where they grade into the Tehachapi Mountains. The forest includes the Giant Sequoia NM and Golden Trout, Domeland, Jennie Lake, Kiavah, Monarch, and South Sierra wildernesses (see). The Kern Plateau is a high-elevation area, while the Upper Kern River above Lake Isabella and the Lower Kern below Lake Isabella are whitewater recreational rivers. Ecoregions NA527, 1202, and 1203.

II. National Landscape Conservation System

The NLCS includes the areas below as well as wilderness and wilderness study areas. Wilderness areas are in a separate list below; a list of WSAs is not provided.

California Coastal National Monument (site 12). Rocks, pinnacles, and reefs within 14 miles of the shoreline are included in this area, which extends the length of the state. Major groupings of rocks are located near San Diego, the Palos Verdes Peninsula at Los Angeles, Malibu, San Clemente Island, San Nicholas Island, and Santa Catalina Island. Palos Verdes Estates and the City of Ranch Palos Verdes have numerous underwater ridges, rocks, and reefs which are included in the monument. There are also numerous tidepools. Ecoregion NA1201 and marine ecoregion 59.

Carrizo Plain National Monument, California (site 13). The area includes Soda Lake and two large valleys between two mountain ranges. This is an IBA for raptors. Wintering sandhill cranes, SAsn Joaquin kit fox, and the giant kangaroo rat are also found here. Ecoregion NA1202.

Santa Rosa and San Jacinto National Monument, California (site 14). With elevations ranging from sea level to 10,000 feet, a diversity of natural landscapes are present, ranging from the desert to pinyon-juniper to limber and lodgepole pine. The San Jacinto Mountains rise almost 10,000 feet in seven horizontal miles. The mountains overlook the rapidly urbanizing Coachella Valley. Streams and seeps support palm oases. The San Jacinto Mountains are the northern end of the Peninsular Range, which extends south the length of Baja California. Includes Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Hidden Palms Ecological Reserve, Boyd, Phillip J., Deep Canyon Research Center (UC Riverside), Carrizo Canyon Ecological Reserve, the Living Desert (zoo and botanical garden), Magnesia Spring Ecological Reserve, Mount San Jacinto State Park and Wilderness, Palm Canyon Creek National Wild and Scenic River, Palm Springs Aerial Tramway, Peninsular Ranges Ecological Reserve, Santa Rosa Wilderness, and part of San Jacinto Wilderness, Ecoregion NA1310 and NA1201.

III. National Marine Sanctuary

Channel Islands (site 1). Includes waters within six miles of San Miguel (west of map area), Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands. See description under Biosphere Reserves

IV. National Natural Landmarks (NNLs)

National Natural Landmarks are designated by the Secretary of the Interior and tend to be state, local, and private sites with unusual geological or biological interest. They also include areas of the national system of public lands and other federal sites.

La Brea, California (site15). Rancho La Brea, in downtown Los Angeles, contains the largest and most diverse assemblage of Ice Age mammals and plants. Ecoregion NA1201.

Irvine Ranch, California (site 16). This development has a 50,000-acre open space reserve that stretches from the Pacific Ocean to the Cleveland National Forest and is listed as a NNL for its complete stratigraphic record for the last 80 million years, from the late Cretaceous to the present. It is known for fossils of duck-billed dinosaurs. Rare Tecate cypress woodlands are found here. Ecoregion NA1201.

Miramar Mounds, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, California (site 17). Vernal pools and rare coastal sage scrub located in San Diego. Ecoregion NA1201.

Pixley Vernal Pools Preserve, Center for Natural Lands Management, California (site 18). The last vestige of vernal pool habitat in the San Joaquin Valley, known for flowering goldfield, downingia, quiltwork and popcorn flower. Ecoregion NA801.

Sand Ridge Wildflower Preserve, Center for Natural Land Management, California (site 19). Along Caliente Creek are endangered Bakersfield cacti and a unique assemblage of San Joaquin Valley and Mojave Desert species. Ecoregion NA1202.

Sharktooth Hill Bone Bed, California (site 20). Northeast of Bakersfield is the best fossil marine site in the world, the Ernst Quarries at Sharktooth Hill. The Miocene-age deposit contains the bones of Pacific Ocean animals of 141 species, including sharks, sea lions, turtles, and whales. The area was first examined by Louis Agassiz in 1856 and is still being researched today. Sharkteeth as big as a hand have been unearthed. Ecoregion NA1202.

Tijuana River Estuary, California. See description under Ramsar sites.

Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve, California (site 21). The nation’s rarest pine tree, unique biological communities, and endangered birds are found in this state-managed area. The small grove of Torrey pines on a mountain top overlooks chaparral-covered ocean cliffs. The Los Penasquitos lagoon in the park is part of the North San Diego Lagoons IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

V. National Park System (US and Mexico)

The national park system includes nationally significant lands with natural and historic interest. Park system units in both countries are included.

Cabrillo National Monument, California (site 22). A rocky coastline, natural chaparral vegetation, and migratory birds are found in this historical park in San Diego. Offshore is a kelp ‘forest.’ The park commemorates the 1542 landing of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo on the west coast of the United States. Ecoregion NA1201.

Channel Islands National Park, California (site 1). Includes the islands of Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Anacapa on the map. See description under Biosphere Reserves. Ecoregion NA1201 and marine ecoregions 58 and 59.

Constitution of 1857 National Park, Baja California (site23). Conifers and wildflowers surrounding a dry lake. It is also part of the Sierra Juarez IBA as recognized by BirdLife International. Ecoregion NA526.

Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, California (site 24). The mountain range adjacent to Los Angeles, the Santa Monicas have canyons, beaches and lagoons amid urban encroachments. The backbone trail extends 60 miles through the mountains. Included in the NRA are Malibu Lagoon State Beach, El Matador State Beach, Malibu Creek State Park, Solstice Canyon, and Point Mugu State Park. Ecoregion NA1201.

Sierra de San Pedro Martir National Park, Baja California (site 25). This boulder-studded park contains conifer forest, is home of the National Astronomical Observatory, and is also an IBA. Ecoregion NA526.

VI. Federal Recreation Lakes

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the Bureau of Reclamation have constructed water management facilities to provide flood control, water storage, and recreation values. Surrounding lands also provide important terrestrial habitats.

Brea Dam, USACE, California (site 26). Managed by the City of Fullerton, this is part of the Los Angeles Flood Control Basins IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Lake Cachuma, Bureau of Reclamation, California (site 27). Ecoregion NA1202.

Carbon Canyon Dam, USACE, California (site 26). Managed by Orange County as Carbon Canyon Regional Park and located in Brea, this area has a nature trail and is part of the Los Angeles Flood Control Basins IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Lake Casitas, Bureau of Reclamation, California (site 28). This lake contains freshwater marsh which is an IBA for osprey and northern harrier. Ecoregion NA1201.

Eastman Lake, USACE, California (site 29). Located near Raymond on the Chowchilla River, the park is surrounded by oak woodlands. Ecoregion NA1202.

Fullerton Dam, USACE, California (site 26). Managed by Orange County as Craig Regional Park, this area is part of the Los Angeles Flood Control Basins IBA, Ecoregion NA1201.

Hansen Dam, USACE, California (site 30). Managed by the City of Los Angeles in the San Fernando Valley on Tujunga Wash, this is part of the Los Angeles Flood Control Basins IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Hensley Lake, USACE, California (site 29). Located at Raymond on the Fresno River, the park is surrounded by oak woodlands. Ecoregion NA1202.

Isabella Lake, USACE, California (site 31). Located on the Kern River, it was built by USACE and is operated as a Kern County park. NA1203.

Lake Kaweah, USACE, California (site 32). Located at Lemon Cove on the Kaweah River. Ecoregion NA1202.

Mojave River Dam, USACE, California (site 33). Managed by the San Bernardino County Parks and located near Hesperia. Ecoregion NA1203.

Pine Flat Lake, USACE, California (site 34). Located east of Fresno on the Kings River and bordered by the Sequoia and Sierra National Forests. Ecoregion NA1202.

Prado Dam, USACE, California (site 35). Managed by San Bernardino County Parks and located in Corona on the Santa Ana River, this area is part of the Los Angeles Flood Control Basins IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Santa Fe Dam, USACE, California (site 36). Managed by Los Angeles County and located in Irwindale on the San Gabriel River, this area is part of the Los Angeles Flood Control Basins IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Sepulveda Dam, USACE, California (site 37). Located in the Van Nuys area of Los Angeles on the Los Angeles River, this area is managed by the City of Los Angeles and is part of the Los Angeles Flood Control Basins IBA.

Success Lake, USACE, California (site 38). The dam is located near Porterville on the Tule River. The upper end contains valley floor wet grasslands which make it an IBA for grasshopper sparrow, burrowing owl, and tricolored blackbird. Ecoregion NA1202.

Whittier Narrows Dam, USACE, California (site 39). Managed by Los Angeles County and the City of Pico Rivera, this area of coastal sage scrub on the Rio Hondo is part of the Los Angeles Flood Control Basins IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

VII. National Scenic Trails

The national scenic and historic trails system includes long-distance national trails and shorter national recreation trails (NRTs).

Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. Extending 2,600 miles from Canada to Mexico, the trail passes through some of the most scenic areas in California. Coastal sage and chaparral lands that the trail passes through, from south to north, are Cleveland NF, Hauser Wilderness, San Bernardino NF, San Jacinto Wilderness, San Gorgonio Wilderness, Angeles NF, Sheep Mountain Wilderness, San Gabriel Wilderness, Kiavah Wilderness, Domeland Wilderness, and Sequoia NF.

Bayside NRT, Cabrillo National Monument, California (site 22). A two-mile trail that offers dramatic views of San Diego Bay. Ecoregion 1201.

Camp Creek NRT, San Bernardino NF, California (site 10). A 2.2-mile trail near Snow Valley. Ecoregion 1203.

Gabrielino NRT, Angeles NF, California (site 6). A 26-mile trail located north of Los Angeles. Ecoregion 1203.

High Desert NRT, Angeles NF, California (site 64). A 27-mile trail located 70 miles northeast of Los Angeles on Route 2. Ecoregion 1203.

Inaja NRT, Cleveland NF, California (site 105). Located one mile east of Santa Ysabel. Ecoregion NA1201.

Lost Lake NRT, Friant Dam-Millertown Lake, Fresno County Parks, California (site 3). Ecoregion NA1202.

Mountains to Sea NRT, Irvine Ranch Conservancy, California (site 16). This trail traverses the Irvine Ranch NNL, a 50,000-acre open space reserve that stretches from the Pacific Ocean to the Cleveland National Forest and is listed as a NNL for its complete stratigraphic record for the last 80 million years, from the late Cretaceous to the present.

Noble Canyon NRT, Cleveland NF, California (site 88). This 10-mile trail is in the Laguna Mountain area. Ecoregion NA1201.

North Shore NRT, San Bernardino NF, California (site 10). This 6-mile trail is at Arrowhead Lake. Ecoregion NA1203.

Observatory NRT, Cleveland NF, California (site 46). This 2.1-mile trail is at Mount Palomar. Ecoregion NA1201.

Piedra Blanca NRT, Los Padres NF, California (site 44). This NRT is located in the Sespe Wilderness. Ecoregion NA1203.

Santa Ana River NRT, Riverside County Regional Park and Open Space District, San Bernardino County Regional Parks, and Orange County Parks, California (site 26). This NRT follows the river from the coast inland and is planned to be 110 miles long from the San Bernardino NF to the coast. Ecoregion NA1201.

Santa Cruz/Aliso NRT, Los Padres National Forest, California (site 27). This 12-mile trail on Oso Creek is east of Lake Cachuma and south of the San Rafael Wilderness. Ecoregion NA1203.

Silver Moccasin NRT, Angeles NF, California (site 6). This 51-mile trail is northwest of Pasadena. Ecoregion NA1203.

Squaw Leap NRT, BLM Bakersfield, California (site 3). This 10.5-mile trail is in the San Joaquin River gorge. Ecoregion NA1202.

Sugarloaf NRT, San Bernardino NF, California (site 10). This five-mile trail is near Big Bear city. Ecoregion NA1203.

West Fork NRT, Angeles NF, California (site 2). This 13-mile trail follows the West Fork of San Gabriel River past waterfalls and through a canyon. Ecoregion NA1203.

VIII. National Wild and Scenic River System

Free-flowing rivers can be classified as wild, scenic, or recreational rivers. The following streams fall into one or more of these categories.

Bautista Creek, San Bernardino NF, California (site 40). A ten-mile section of this creek is designated as a recreational river under the WSR act, is an important migratory bird corridor and is an IBA. Ecoregion NA1203.

Fuller Mill Creek, Mount San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino NF, California (site 41). A three-mile stretch of this creek, complete with waterfalls, is a wild river. Ecoregion NA1203.

Merced River and South Fork Merced River, BLM lands, Sierra and Stanislaus National Forests and Yosemite National Park, California (site 42). This includes 122 river miles including the world’s most famous glacially carved valley, Yosemite. Ecoregion NA527 and NA1202.

Piru Creek, Angeles and Los Padres National Forests, California (site 43). A seven-mile stretch provides wild trout water, condor habitat, and scenic tilted sedimentary rock formations. Ecoregion NA1203.

San Jacinto River, North Fork, San Bernardino National Forest, California (site 40). A ten-mile reach provides habitat for rare wildlife such as mountain yellow-legged frogs and San Bernardino flying squirrel. Ecoregion NA1203.

Sespe Creek, Los Padres National Forest, California (site 44). A 31-mile reach of this creek is designated as a WSR, supporting steelhead trout and arroyo toads. Ecoregion NA1203.

Sisquoc River, Los Padres National Forest, California (site 45). This river in the San Rafael Wilderness supports steelhead trout and flows for 33 miles as a WSR. Ecoregion NA1203.

IX. Wilderness Areas

Agua Tibia Wilderness, Palomar Ranger District, Cleveland NF (site 46). An area just outside of Temecula that consists of dramatic deep canyons with small pools of water. Vegetation is chaparral, oak woodland, and pine-fir forest depending on elevation. Ecoregion NA1201.

Bighorn Mountain Wilderness, BLM and San Bernardino NF, California (site 47). This is a transition between the Mojave Desert and stands of Jeffrey pine. Ecoregion NA1203.

Cahuila Mountain Wilderness, San Bernadino NF, California (site 48). This chaparral-covered area is home to the red diamond rattlesnake. Ecoregion NA1203.

Carrizo Gorge Wilderness, BLM, California (site 49). This transition from the peninsular ranges to the desert offers scenic views. Ecoregion NA1201.

Chumash Wilderness, Los Padres NF, California (site 50). Includes Mount Pinos, conifers, and chaparral in the most rugged terrain in southern California. Ecoregion NA1203.

Cucamonga Wilderness, Angeles and San Bernardino NF, California (site 51). Steep mountain backdrop to the urban San Bernardino basin. Ecoregion NA1203.

Domeland Wilderness, Sequoia NF and BLM, California (site 52). This marks the transition from the southernmost Sierra Nevada Mountains into the deserts. Church Dome is one of the scenic rock formations. Included is the South Fork Kern River National Wild and Scenic River and a section of the Pacific Crest Trail. Ecoregions NA527 and NA1203.

Hauser Wilderness, Descano Ranger District, Cleveland National Forest, California (site 53). Located east of San Diego and south of I-8, this area is noted for granite boulders and rock outcrops. Ecoregion NA1201.

Kiavah Wilderness, Sequoia NF and BLM California Desert District, California (site 54). The transition between the Sierra Nevada and Mojave Desert contains canyons and includes a section of the Pacific Crest Trail. Ecoregions NA1203 and NA1308.

Magic Mountain Wilderness, Angeles NF, California (site 55). Chaparral with oak woodlands overlook suburban Los Angeles. Ecoregion NA1203.

Matilija Wilderness, Los Padres NF, California (site 56). Includes Matilija Creek and scenic canyons lined with alder and maple. Ecoregion NA1203.

Otay Mountain Wilderness, BLM, California (site 57). This area near San Diego protects 20 rare plants and animals, including Tecate cypress, Mexican flannel bush,a nd quino checkerspot butterfly. Ecoregion NA1201.

Owens Peak Wilderness, BLM, California (site 58). This transition area between the Great Basin, Mojave Desert, and Sierra Nevada has a variety of vegetation types including creosote bush, yucca, oak, and pinyon-juniper. Ecoregions NA527, NA1203, and NA1308.

Pine Creek Wilderness, Descanso Ranger District, Cleveland National Forest, California (site 59). An area of chaparral and oak east of San Diego and south of I-8. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Gabriel Wilderness, Angeles NF, California (site 60). Rugged chaparral and pine-covered mountains are found here. Ecoregion NA1203.

San Gorgonio Wilderness, BLM, California (site 61). The eastern slope of the San Bernardino Mountains above 7,000 feet has 81 miles of trails, including the Pacific Crest Trail. Ecoregion NA1203.

San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino National Forest and Santa Rosa and San Jacinto National Monument, California (site 41). The area includes desert to alpine vegetation adjacent to Mount San Jacinto State Park. Ecoregions NA1201, NA1203, and NA1310.

San Mateo Canyon Wilderness, Trabuco Ranger District, Cleveland National Forest, California (site 62). Located west of Lake Elsinore, south of Ortega Highway, and north of Camp Pendleton, the area is noted for spring wildflowers. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Rafael Wilderness, Los Padres NF, California (site 45). This chaparral area of 200,000 acres includes the Sisquoc WSR and the Sisquoc Condor Sanctuary, along with 125 miles of trails. Ecoregion NA1203.

Sawtooth Mountains Wilderness, BLM, California (site 63). Finger ridges extend into the desert north of McCain Valley. Ecoregion NA1201.

Sespe Wilderness, Los Padres NF, California (site 44). Bleak and jagged wilderness of 220,000 acres with boulder-swept areas; includes the Sespe WSR, Sespe Condor Sanctuary, and Sespe Hot Springs. Ecoregion NA1203.

Sheep Mountain Wilderness, Angeles NF, California (site 64). Chaparral to evergreen forests on the north side of the San Gabriel Mountains north of Los Angeles. Ecoregion NA1203.

Dick Smith Wilderness, Los Padres NF, California (site 65). Caparral and conifer area around Madulce Peak has 49 miles of trails. Ecoregion NA1203.

South Fork San Jacinto Wilderness, San Bernardino NF, California (site 48). Noted for lush groves of Douglas fir. Ecoregion NA1203.

X. National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) System

Bitter Creek NWR, California (site 66). Purchased to protect California condor foraging habitat, the refuge is closed to the public. Part of the San Emigdio Mountains IBA. Ecoregion NA1203.

Blue Ridge NWR, California (site 67). This refuge protects foraging habitat for the California condor and is closed to the public. Ecoregion NA 1202.

Hopper Mountain NWR, California (site 44). Located six miles northof Fillmore, this refuge protects foraging areas of the California condor and is closed to the public. Ecoregion NA1203.

Kern NWR, California (site 68). Alkali grassland provides habitat for waterfowl and shorebirds. Part of the Sand Ridge-Tulare Lake Bed IBA. Ecoregion NA801.

Pixley NWR, California (site 69). A dune system on the shore of anicient Tulare Lake attracts sandhill crane and long-eared owl. Part of the Sand Ridge-Tulare Lake Bed IBA. Ecoregion NA 801.

San Diego NWR, California (site 17 and 70). Coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and oak woodlands provide habitat for endangered birds and butterflies. This refuge is an IBA noted for cactus wren, California gnatcatcher, and Bell’s vireo. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Diego Bay NWR, California (site 22). The Sweetwater Marsh unit is home to four endangered or threatened birds, and the South Bay unit is part of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. Ecoregion NA1201.

Seal Beach NWR, California (site 71). Part of the Orange Coast Wetlands IBA, this area preserves habitat for the California least tern and light-footed clapper rail. Ecoregion NA1201.

Tijuana Slough NWR, California (site 5). See description under Tijuana River at Ramsar sites.

XI. Other Federal Sites

Atwell Island Land Retirement Demonstration, BLM Bakersfield District, California (site 72). The site of former Tulare Lake, once the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi. Ecoregion NA801.

Camp Pendleton, US Marine Corps, California (site 73). The Santa Margarita River is an unbroken 27-mile long riparian corridor and is an IBA for southwestern willow flycatcher, least Bell’s vireo, long-eared owl, California least tern, snowy plover, and Belding’s savannah sparrow. Ecoregion NA1201.

Goose Lake, Buttonwillow, California (site 74). This BLM site is an alkali sink scrub area and an IBA for breeding yellow-headed blackbirds. Ecoregion NA801.

Horse Canyon, Tehachapi Pass, California (site 75). This BLM site contains fossil animals from the Miocene Epoch. Ecoregion NA1203.

Piute Cypress Natural Area, Bodfish, California (site 76). This BLM site is where this rare tree grows in a chaparral and oak woodland. Ecoregion NA1203.

Point Mugu, Naval Base Ventura County, California (site 77). A large rock formation overlooks coastal estuaries supporting shorebirds and ducks. An IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Clemente Island Naval Auxiliary Landing Field, California (site 78). This southernmost Channel Island supports cactus scrub, grassland, and endemic oaks, and is an IBA for an endemic shrike and sage sparrow. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Joaquin River Gorge Special Recreation Management Area, BLM Bakersfield Office, California (site 79). Noted for trails and wildflowers. Ecoregion NA1203.

XII. State and Local Sites

Agua Hedionda Lagoon Ecological Reserve, California (site 80). Located in Carlsbad, this is part of the North San Diego Lagoons IBA. Ecoregion 1201.

Ballona Wetlands Ecological Reserve, Los Angeles (site 81). This most signifcnatcoastal wetland in Los Angeles is an IBA for least tern and snowy plover. Ecoregion NA1201.

Batiquitos Lagoon Ecological Reserve, California (site 80). Located in Carlsbad, this is part of the North San Diego Lagoons IBA. Ecoregion 1201.

Blue Sky Ecological Reserve, California (site 106). A 700-acre oak-lined stream and canyon between Ramona and Poway in San Diego County. Ecoregion NA1201.

Bolsa Chica State Beach and Bolsas Chica Ecological Reserve, California (site 71). Part of the Orange Coast Wetlands IBA for nesting terns, raptors, and plovers, it is connected by trail to Huntington State Beach. Ecoregion NA1201.

Box Springs Reserve, University of California (UC) Natural Reserve System (site 82). Located on a mountain overlooking Riverside, habitat for chaparral and 19 species of reptiles. Ecoregion NA1201.

Buena Vista Lagoon Ecological Reserve, California (site 80). Located at Oceanside, this is part of the North San Diego Lagoons IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Buena Vista Aquatic Recreational Area, Kern County, California (site 83). An IBA for the white-faced ibis. Ecoregion NA801.

Burns Pinon Ridge Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System (site 84). Located at the triple point of the Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert, and 1203, this area has pinyon-juniper and Joshua tree habitats.

Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System, Carpinteria (site 85). Habitat for waterfowl and endangered plants and animals. Ecoregion 1203.

Chino Hills State Park, California (site 35) . Located just east of the Los Angeles Basin, this park preserves open space and is part of the Puente-Chino Hills IBA, containing grassland and black walnut woodland with northern harrier, cactus wren, and grasshopper sparrow. To the northwest of the park, the IBA is privately owned. Ecoregion NA 1201.

Coal Canyon Ecological Reserve, California (site 35). Adjoining Chino Hills State Park and Cleveland National Forest, this area is part of the Central Orange County Preserve IBA for California gnatcatcher and grasshopper sparrow. Ecoregion NA1201.

Coal Oil Point Natural Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System (site 86). Located on the UC Santa Barbara West Campus, this provide shoreline and estuarine habitats. Ecoregion NA1201.

Crystal Cove State Park, California (site 87). Wooded canyons, bluffs and three miles of coastline, part of the San Joaquin Hills IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, California (site 88). A high-elevation hiking area east of San Diego in oak woodland habitats. Part of the San Diego Montane Forests IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Dawson Los Monos Canyon Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System (site 80). A lush riparian woodland in Carlsbad and Vista. Ecoregion NA1201.

Elliott Chaparral Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System (site 17). This ridge of Kearney Mesa in San Diego is adjacent to Miramar Marine Corps base. Ecoregion 1201.

Lake Elsinore, City of Lake Elsinore, California (site 89). California’s largest natural lake is an IBA for raptors and terns. Ecoregion NA1201.

Emerson Oaks Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System (site 46). Located adjacent to Agua Tibia Wilderness, this area provides oak woodland and coastal sage habitats. Ecoregion NA1201.

Goleta Coast, UC-Santa Barbara and City of Goleta, California (site 86). The west side of Santa Barbara contains remnant coastal grassland, oak woodland, and tidal wetlands and is an IBA for snowy plover, least tern, Belding’s savannah sparrow, and raptors. Ecoregion NA1203.

Huntington State Beach, California (site 71). Part of the Orange Coast Wetlands IBA for nesting terns, raptors, and plovers, it is connected by trail to Bolsa Chica State Beach. Ecoregion NA1201.

Kendall-Frost Mission Bay Marsh Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System (site 21). Coastal salt marsh habitat in San Diego. Ecoregion NA1201.

Laguna Coast Wilderness Park, Orange County, California (site 87). The San Joaquin hills are an IBA for Nuttall’s woodpecker and Costa’s hummingbird. Flat coastal Los Angeles Basin is interrupted by grasslands, coastal sage scrub, chaparral and oak woodlands. Ecoregion NA1201.

Lake Mathews-Estelle Mountain Reserve, Riverside County Habitat Conservation Agency, California (site 82). This preserve for the Stephen’s kangaroo rat is an IBA for California gnatcatcher. Ecoregion NA1201.

Lower Los Angeles River, City of Long Beach, California (site 90). The concrete channel grows algae and microinvertebrates, which attracts shorebirds such as sandpipers and plovers, making this a unique IBA. It may be viewed from an off-road bicycle path on the east side of the river. Ecoregion NA1201.

Malibu Creek State Park, California (site 24). Trails follow an oak-lined stream through a canyon. Ecoregion 1201.

McGrath State Beach, Oxnard (site 91). More than 200 species of birds make this the best birdwatching area in the state. Ecoregion 1201.

Millertown Lake State Recreation Area, Friant (site 3). Known for wildflower displays and eagle viewing, Ecoregion 1202.

Mission Bay Park, City of San Diego, California (site 21). The Northern Wildlife Reserve is an IBA for waterfowl and shorebirds, including light-footed clapper rail and Belding’s savannah sparrow. Ecoregion NA1201.

Motte Rimrock Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System (site 89). Located west of Perrris, this rocky plateau has habitat for Stephens kangaroo rat and California gnatcatcher. Ecoregion NA1201.

O’Neill Regional Park, Trabuco Canyon, Orange County, California (site 92). Part of the Central Orange County Preserves IBA for California gnatcatcher and grasshopper sparrow. Ecoregion NA1201.

Palomar Mountain State Park. Spectacular views in Cleveland NF (site 46). Ecoregion NA1201.

Lake Perris State Recreaton Area (site 93). Preserves unusual rock formations. Ecoregion NA1201.

Point Dume State Beach (site 24). Known for giant coreopsis, trails,and bluffs. Ecoregion NA1201.

Point Mugu State Park, Camarillo (site 77). Known for whale watching, the park also has miles of trails. Ecoregion NA1201.

Thomas F. Riley Wilderness Park, Coto de Caza, Orange County, California (site 92). Groves of western sycamores and live oaks provide habitat for this area, part of the Central Orange County Preserve IBA for California gnatcatcher and grasshopper sparrow. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Dieguito River Park Joint Powers Authority, Escondido, CA (site 94). The San Dieguito lagoon is being restored and is part of the North San Diego Lagoons IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Elijo Lagoon Ecological Reserve (site 95). Located in Encinitas, this salt marsh and mudflat area also provides coastal sage habitat for California gnatcatcher. Part of the North San Diego Lagoons IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Mount San Jacinto State Park (site 41). 10,000-foot mountains overlooking the desert. Ecoregion NA1203.

San Jacinto Wildlife Area, California (site 96). An IBA for breeding white-faced ibis, rails, blackbirds and ferruginous hawks. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Luis Rey Trail, City of Oceanside (site 80). The San Luis Rey Lagoon is part of the North San Diego Lagoons IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Joaquin Marsh Reserve, UC Nature Reserve System (site 16). Located adjacent to UC Irvine campus, this provide habitat for light-footed clapper rail and California least tern. Ecoreigon NA1201.

San Onofre State Beach (site 97). Three miles of oceanfront at San Clemente. Ecoregion NA1201.

Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, San Diego State University, California (site 110). This area between Temecula and Fallbrook contains the five-mile long Temecula Gorge. Ecoregion NA1201.

Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, Riverside County Park, California (site 98). This area protects oak woodlands, vernal pools, and 49 endangered or threatened species. Ecoregion NA1201

Santa Ysabel Open Space Reserve, San Diego County, California (site 111). This area contains oak woodlands and grasslands near Julian. Ecoregion NA1201.

Santiago Oaks Regional Park, Orange, Orange County, California (site 99). Part of the Central Orange County Preserves IBA for California gnatcatcher and grasshopper sparrow. Ecoregion NA1201.

Scripps Coastal Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System (site 22). Adjacent to Scripps Institute of Oceanography, this area offers grassy knolls, coastal canyons, and the 1050-foot long Scripps pier. Ecoregion NA1201.

Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, UC Natural Reserve System (site24). Located north of Malibu, this is centered on the pristine Cold Creek watershed. Ecoregion NA1201.

Topanga State Park (site 100). Over 11,000 acres of Santa Monica Mountains and trails. Ecoregion NA1201.

Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve, California (site 21). See description under National Natural Landmarks. Ecoregion NA1201.

Tule Elk State Natural Reserve (site 83). Located north of Buena Vista Lake. Ecoregion NA801.

Volcan Mountain Wilderness, San Diego County, California (site 111). This 17,000-acre mountain near Julian is a mixed conifer forest on the edge of the desert. Ecoregion NA1201.

XIII. Other Natural Sites

Aguanga Valley, California (site 101). This area of coastal sage, mesquite,a nd coast live oak is an IBA for least Bell’s vireo and orioles. Ecoregion NA1201.

Coronado Islands, Baja California (site 102). Just south of San Diego, these are recognized as an IBA.

Cuyama Valley, California (site 103). This privately held area between Carrizo Plain NM and Los Padres NF contains grassland and sage scrub and is an IBA for raptors, burrowing owl, and tricolored blackbird. Ecoregion NA1202.

Kelso Creek, California (site 31). This private site near Isabella Reservoir is a lush woodland of cottonwood and willows, along with Joshua tree woodland and chaparral is an IBA for burrowing owl and migrant songbirds. Ecoregion NA1202.

Merced Grasslands, California (site 104). The Central Valley edge northof Fresno is a vast undulating prairie and an IBA for raptors and long-billed curlew. Ecoregion NA801.

Pamo Valley, California (site 105). This area near San Diego contains an ancient oak woodland and is an IBA for grasshopper sparrow and tricolored blackbird. Ecoregion NA1201.

Pier 400 Tern Colony, Port of Los Angeles (site 90). This artificial island is maintained by the Port of Los Angeles for least tern nesting and is an IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Ramona Grasslands Reserve, San Diego County, California (site 105). Vernal pools, alkali playas, and grasslands are protected west of Ramona. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Luis Rey River, California (site 106). The river, a short stretch of which flows through the Cleveland National Forest, is an IBA for willow flycatcher and least Bell’s vireo and raptors. Lake Henshaw is surrounded by grassland habitat and the largest expanse of Engelmann oak woodland in the world. Ecoregion NA1201.

San Pasqual Valley-Lake Hodges, California (site 94). An IBA with lowland riparian habitat supports least Bell’s vireo, willow flycatcher, and California gnatcatcher. Ecoregion NA1201.

Sand Ridge-Tulare Lake Bed, California (site 68). This IBA made of the floodwater basins of the former Tulare Lake, Creighton Ranch, Kern NWR, and Pixley NWR is habitat for waterfowl, shorebirds, and breeding terns. Ecoregion NA801.

Santa Ana River Valley, California (site 107). The grassland and coastal sage scrub of Rubidoux Nature Center and Prado Basin are an IBA for Bell’s vireo, yellow-billed cuckoo and burrowing owl. Ecoregion NA1201.

Santa Catalina Island, California (site 108). This island is 90 percent owned by the Catalina Island Conservancy and is part of the northern Channel Islands IBA. The Conservancy maintains more than 200 miles of trails. See description under Biosphere Reserves. Ecoregion NA1201.

Santa Clara River Valley, California (site 109). A large community of riparian-obligate birds such as Bell’s vireo, willow flycatcher, and yellow-billed cuckoo. Ecoregion NA1201.

Santa Cruz Island, California (site 1). This island is partly owned by the Nature Conservancy. See description under Channel Islands NP.

Sierra Juarez, Baja California (site 23). The mountain range is recognized as an IBA by Birdlife International. Ecoregion NA526.

Skinner Reservoir, California (site 112). Coastal sage scrub and grassland owned by the Metropolitan Water District is a key raptor wintering area and IBA. Ecoregion NA1201.

Starr Ranch, California (site 92). Part of the Southern Orange County IBA, this grassland-oak belt property managed by the National Audubon Society contains habitat for San Diego cactus wren and California gnatcatcher. Ecoregion NA1201.

Taft Hills, California (site 113). Low rolling hills at the eastern edge of the Tremblor Range contain alkali scrub, coast range scrub, endemic plants. An IBA for Leconte’s thrasher. Ecoregion NA 1202.

Tehachapi Oaks, California (site 114). This northwestern slope overlooks the Central Valley. The oak woodland ecosystem owned by Tejon Ranch is a migratory bird corridor and an IBA for purple martin. Ecoregion NA1203.

Wind Wolves Preserve, The Wildlands Conservancy, California (site 115). The largest privately owned preserve in California at 95,000 acres protects habitats ranging from San Joaquin Valley Grasslands to ponderosa pine forests. Tule elk and pronghorn are found here, along with oak-savanna and Bakersfield cactus. Part of the San Emigdio Mountains IBA, which is an IBA for tricolored blackbirds, willow flycatcher, yellow warbler, and California spotted owl. Ecoregions NA801, NA1202, and NA1203.

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